Tabarek Ali Qassim & Nawal Fadhel Abbas
Impoliteness Formulas, Triggers and Purposes in Relation to Refusal as Employed by Iraqi Learners of English
Culpeper and Hardaker (2017) proclaim that there are few linguistic researches that concentrate on studying intentionality and emotions allied with impoliteness. Thus, the present study aims at investigating the impoliteness formulas/ types found in the responses of the Iraqi learners when refusing marriage proposals. The study also attempts to explore the triggers/ causes of employing the impolite expressions and their purposes. It focuses on scrutinizing the impoliteness types, causes and purposes that most commonly emerge in marriage situations. Methodologically, data were collected from 35 Iraqi learners of English responding to 6 situations of marriage. The data were analysed using Culpeper’s (2011) formulas of impoliteness and Bousfield’s (2007) impoliteness triggers and intentions. The findings revealed that the impoliteness formulas varied based on the nature of the situations, yet in general terms, the most regular ones were insults and pointed criticisms/complaints. Pertaining to impoliteness triggers, the Iraqi learners’ responses reflected anger and disapproval as the most common triggers of impoliteness, on account of a combination of addressee and context related factors. Lastly, impoliteness was utilised as an instrument of insulting, quipping, and showing grudge when refusing the marriage situations, however some impoliteness occurred as a counseling technique.
Keywords: Impoliteness, impoliteness formulas, impoliteness triggers, impoliteness purposes, Iraqi learners, marriage proposals